Based in the heart of NY, Advance Foot and Ankle Solutions offers the best facility for performing foot fracture surgery, while catering to all other various foot and ankle problems. Look no further when you can have direct access to the globally acclaimed specialist team of foot and ankle surgeons, supervising & managing your foot fracture surgery with diligence and dedication.
Advance Foot and Ankle Solutions support team is absolutely attentive to your requirements related to foot fracture surgery. Call & book an appointment right away for professionally diagnosed, treated and empathetically cured foot and ankle issues, to lead a wholesome, enviable lifestyle.
The Basic Anatomy & Pathophysiology Of The Foot
The Basic Anatomy
There are 26 bones making up the foot, along with 33 joints and an intricate network of 100+ ligaments, tendons and muscles. These 26 bones comprise 2 bones in the hind foot (calcaneus, talus), 5 bones in the midfoot (navicular, cuboid, 3 cuneiforms), and 19 bones in the forefoot (5 metatarsals, 14 phalanges), in addition to the sesamoid bones. These bones support our weight and allow us to walk and run.
Due to its higher frequency of usage and immense pressure over it during movement, the foot is subject to more external impacts that are directly related to its unity and strength to let us perform our routine chores. Certain activities or injuries can cause a fracture, or break, in one or more of its bones. Pain, swelling, redness and even bruising are signs of a possible fracture.
The Basic Pathophysiology
A broken foot or foot fracture is a breakage in one or more of the bones in your foot. It may happen because of a sports injury, a fall, or other accident. Foot fractures are among the most common foot injuries evaluated by primary care physicians. Approximately 10% of all fractures occur in the 26 bones of the foot, most often involving the metatarsals and toes. Their diagnosis usually requires radiographic evaluation or ultrasonography for higher accuracy.
Foot fractures are classified into two basic types:
- Closed Fracture whereby the broken bone does not poke through the skin
- Open Or Compound Fracture whereby bone breaks through the skin
Bone fracture repair is a surgery to fix a broken bone using metal screws, pins, rods, or plates to hold the bone segments in place until they fuse together and complete healing is achieved. It is also known as Open Reduction and Internal Fixation (ORIF) surgery.
Your treatment depends on the type of break and its location in your foot. Certain kinds of injuries may need surgery at some time while a majority can be managed with the help of conservative methods. Whatever treatment mode is employed by your podiatric specialist, you can ease symptoms and help your foot heal completely with care at home within 6 to 8 weeks or more.
Types & Location Of Foot Fractures
The various types of foot fractures are categorized with respect to their location, listed below:
- Toe Fractures that normally can heal with or without a cast
- Metatarsal Bone Fractures that often do not require a cast. A stiff-soled shoe is primarily needed for support as the foot heals while surgery is sometimes required to correct misaligned bones or fractured segments.
- Lisfranc Fracture Dislocation Injuries that require surgery for repair
- Talar Fractures whose treatment depends upon the location of the damage in the bone
- Talar Neck Fractures that often have difficulty healing due to poor blood supply
- Calcaneus Fractures that require significant force to occur and are associated with a considerable amount of swelling and pain
- Sesamoid Bone Fractures that occur in the sesamoid bones which are two small, round bones at the end of the metatarsal bone of the big toe. Usually, padded soles can help relieve pain. Sometimes, the sesamoid bone may have to be surgically removed.
- Ankle Joint Fractures which may be serious and require immediate medical attention. Ankle fractures usually require a cast, and some may require surgery if the bones are too separated or misaligned.
Signs & Symptoms Of A Broken Foot
Broken bones are always painful, especially when they belong to the foot which is a weight bearing body part. The common signs and symptoms of a broken bone in the foot include:
- Pain in the broken portion
- Limping while walking
- Swelling in the affected area
- Bruising caused due to injury
- Tenderness in the surrounding tissues
- Joint Dislocation in significant injury
- Deformity due to loss in bone alignment
The Diagnostic Process Of Foot Fractures
The diagnosis of foot breakage issues includes the following procedures:
- Patient’s History which includes the following:
- Mechanism Of Injury
- Time Between Injury & Presentation
- Prior Injuries
- Physical Examination which includes the following:
- Inspect injured foot for swelling, bruises, deformity, and open wounds.
- Uncover uninjured foot for side-by-side comparison.
- Palpate for pulses, capillary refill, tenderness, instability, and crepitus.
- Test range of motion and joint function.
- Explore all open wounds.
- Conduct & Document a careful neurologic exam of foot, including both motor and sensory functions.
- Neurologic Examination which includes the following:
- Assess sensation such as light touch and pin prick sensations
- Evaluate the motor function of the muscle and tendon in the injured region
- Imaging Studies which include the following:
- Plain-film Radiography
- CT Scan
The Repair Process Outlined
Depending upon the type, complexity and location of the breakage, bone fracture repair surgery can take several hours. The procedure is generally carried out as follows:
- General anesthesia may be administered to put you under sedation or local anesthesia might be selected to numb only the broken limb.
- The surgeon may make an incision over the fracture site if a plate and screws are to be utilized.
- Alternatively, the surgeon may make an incision at the end of a long bone and place a rod down the inner aspect of the bone to stabilize and repair a fracture.
- The fractured bone is then set into place using metal screws, pins, rods, or plates to secure the bone in place. These metallic fixating components can be either temporary or permanent.
- Your specialist physician might recommend a bone graft if your bone shattered into fragments during your original injury, by using bone from a different part of your body or from a donor to replace the lost portions of the damaged bone.
- Blood vessels that become damaged during your injury would be repaired during surgery.
- When the broken bone has been set properly, your surgeon closes the incision wound with stitches or staples and wraps it in a clean, dry dressing.
- Your injured limb would most likely be put in a cast after the procedure is complete to provide prompt healing.
The Associated Complications
As with any injury, certain complications may occur.
- A Non-union due to failure of broken bones to heal that may require surgery to repair
- Arthritis May Develop if the fracture line enters a joint surface, even if the surface has been aligned by surgery
- Infection may cause damage to underlying structures like tendons, arteries, and nerves, making open fractures complicated
- Significant Swelling may be caused in the tight spaces of the foot due to crush injuries, leading to compartment syndrome.